Comments to models of curricula on specialties of
technical and vocational education
Standard curricula provide performance of professional educational programs on training of specialists with technical and professional education according to requirements of standards of appropriate levels of formation of RK, also open the structural content of general education and vocational training, volume of school hours on cycles, courses and disciplines, regulate training terms.
When developing standard curricula it is necessary to consider base of realization of professional educational programs taking into account the corresponding terms of training:
for the raised skill level:
– the main secondary education without receiving the general secondary education - 1 year 10 months;
– the main secondary education - 1 year 10 months; 2 years 6 months; 2 years 10 months;
– the general secondary education – 10 months, 1 year 6 months, 1 year 10 months;
– technical and professional education – 10 months, 1 year 6 months.
for a skill level of the expert of an average link:
– main secondary education of-2 years 6 months; 2 years 10 months; 3 years 6 months; 3 years 8 months; 3 years 10 months;
– the general secondary education – 1 year 6 months, 1 year 10 months; 2 years 6 months; 2 years 8 months; 2 years 10 months;
– technical and vocational education – 10 months, 1 year 6 months, 1 year 10 months.
The total amount of school hours at an internal form of theoretical training is defined from calculation of an obligatory academic load not less than 36 hours per week (thus the specified volume doesn't include classes in elective courses and to consultation)
The maximum volume of an academic load of the being trained shouldn't exceed 54 hours per week, including all types of classroom and out-of-class study, and it is defined on the basis of calculations for each specialty separately.
Academic year begins on September 1 and comes to an end till July 1. Vacation time makes 11 weeks, of them 2 weeks after winter examinations.
The volume of school hours which is taken away in the standard curriculum on studying of general education disciplines on the basis of the main secondary education with receiving the general secondary education, remains to constants, irrespective of training and specialty term, except "Physical culture".
In models of curricula in a cycle of general education disciplines the necessary volume of school hours on development of educational training programs on disciplines according to the state obligatory standards of the general secondary education is provided.
General education disciplines are a set of disciplines of a public and humanitarian and natural and mathematical orientation.
The list and volume of school hours of general education disciplines are made according to requirements of the state obligatory standards of the general secondary education.
Discipline "Kazakh language and literature" (170-156 hours). In groups with the Kazakh language of training of 60% of the total amount of hours it is taken away on studying of the Kazakh literature and 40% - on studying of the Kazakh language, and in groups with training Russian - 60% for studying of the Kazakh language and 40% - on studying of the Kazakh literature.
Discipline "Russian and literature" (170-156 hours). In groups with the Kazakh language of training of 40% of the total amount of hours it is taken away on studying of the Russian literature and 60% - on Russian studying, and in groups with training Russian - 40% for studying of Russian and 60% - on studying of the Russian literature.
For expansion of opportunities of mastering with other languages along with a state language the course of a foreign language (136-72 hours) is included.
The discipline "History of Kazakhstan" (40-120 hours) provides studying history of Kazakhstan and gives an idea of a place and a role of Kazakhstan in development of the world community.
The discipline "World history" (38-80 hours) provides studying of a world history and helps being trained to make idea of the international political situation.
The discipline "Social science" (38-76 hours) gives the chance being trained to understand relationship of the person with environment, the nature, society and provides studying of the subjects "Ethics" and "Psychology of Family Life".
For ensuring implementation of the state obligatory standards of the general secondary education the standard curriculum included the following general education and natural-science disciplines: "Mathematics" (156-120 hours), "Informatics" (76-70 hours), "Physics" (72-146 hour), "Chemistry" (68-116 hour), "Biology" (34-118 hours) and "Geography" (40-36 hours). Volumes of school hours on these disciplines is defined with an education and specialty profile.
When studying natural and mathematical disciplines it is necessary to designate a role of these disciplines in professional activity of the worker of concrete specialty.
When developing standard curricula the increase in volume of school hours of vocational training due to reduction of quantity of school hours of a natural and mathematical cycle is carried out by integration of disciplines of this cycle with disciplines of all-professional and special cycles in the following order:
mathematics with fundamentals of informatics and computer facilities;
physics with electrical equipment bases;
chemistry with fundamentals of agrochemistry;
chemistry with fundamentals of the general biology, ecology of nature protection activity;
biology with fundamentals of ecology.
Classes in "Physical culture" are obligatory and no more than 4 hours per week are planned (depending on specialty), 2 hours from which from the second year can be taken away for occupations in sports sections. On end of the course "Physical culture" examination without allocation of the additional budget of time is passed.
The discipline "Initial military preparation" is carried out in volume of 140 hours, including till 30 o'clock the educational and field (camp) collecting which is carried out at the expense of the general time, allowed for discipline. Girls during this period pass the physician - sanitary preparation in medical institutions in volume to 30 class periods. The place and order of carrying out educational and field collecting and practice are determined by city and regional bodies of health care in coordination with educational bodies and managements by emergency situations the Persons who have had initial military training in full, from occupations are exempted.
General humanitarian disciplines
Studying of vernaculars provides possession of terminology in the specialty, communication in languages for work in the sphere of the professional activity. And in cases when these disciplines are part of vocational training of trainees, the school hours allocated for these disciplines, it is allowed to use on disciplines on specialization or on the disciplines determined by the organization of education
Socially – economic disciplines
When developing standard curricula the right to redistribute the school hours provided on studying of disciplines is provided to the organizations of technical and professional education: cultural science, fundamentals of philosophy, basis of the economy, fundamentals of political science and sociology, right basis. The volume of school hours allocated for studying of social of economic disciplines, irrespective of basic education of realization of educational programs remain constant within 180 hours.
All-professional disciplines take an important place in the general system of a vocational education.
From basic knowledge and abilities which get being trained in the course of development of these disciplines, their opportunity to resolve professional issues with full awareness of integrity of all processes and the phenomena, competently to carry out academic year, degree projects (works) and practical works in the specialty depends.
Depending on a preparation profile on concrete specialty of a combination of disciplines can be various. The volume of the school hours allocated for studying of all-professional disciplines, depends on complexity of specialty and training term.
When developing standard and working curricula on discipline studying "Office-work in a state language", on training is taken away 36-72 hours. Studying of this discipline provides possession of terminology in the specialty, communication in a state language for work in the sphere of the professional activity.
Special disciplines (on a profile) make a basis of vocational training of the being trained.
The content of special disciplines (separate sections and subjects), together with all-professional disciplines, makes a basis of the educational training program of training of specialists.
Disciplines at the choice of the organization of education have to consider personal bent of the professional interests which were trained in the sphere and requirements of the employer to training on this specialty.
Professional practice includes the following types:
on acquisition of professional skills (educational practice, inservice training and so forth);
on acquisition and fixing of professional skills (on acquisition of a working profession, training on production and so forth);
technological, predegree including degree design.
Duration of each type of practice is defined according to requirements of the qualification characteristic of the expert depending on qualification.
All types of professional practice, except predegree, can be carried out is concentrated or dispersed (by alternation with theoretical occupations) at obligatory preservation for academic year of volume of hours both on theoretical occupations, and on practice. Externship is carried out is concentrated. Depending on regional conditions and requirements of employers time of carrying out all types of practice can move within academic year.
In-service training is carried out in laboratories, industrial practice workshops, educational farms, on training grounds and the basic enterprises under the leadership of the master (instructor) of in-service training and teachers of special disciplines or experts from production.
Terms and the content of professional practice are defined by working curricula, an operating schedule of educational process and working training programs.
During practical training mastering being trained by one or several related qualifications with assignment of the category, category, a class is provided.
Vocational training (laboratory classes in all-professional and special disciplines, academic year and degree projects and works, in-service training, professional practice) has to make not less than 40% of the total amount of school hours of compulsory education.
Organization of occupations.
On general education disciplines implementation of training programs on 1-2 year of training is planned, division of groups into subgroups according to requirements of the state obligatory standard of secondary education also is provided.
During the developing and realization of an educational program of the organization of technical and professional education has the right:
1) to change to 25% of volume of school hours for cycles and disciplines at preservation of total volume of the school hours, taken away to development of the professional training program;
2) to choose various technologies of training, a form, methods of the organization and control of educational process;
Development of all-professional and special disciplines can be planned from the first course, in the second half of the year - the organization of fact-finding educational practice.
On theoretical and laboratory classes in separate disciplines, physical culture and when performing academic year projects (works), when studying vernaculars, when carrying out in-service training and professional practice of group share on subgroups, thus in one subgroup has to be no more than 13 being trained, and on the specialties (professions), connected with service of the difficult equipment, performance of dangerous and difficult works – no more than 8 being trained.
Academic year projects (works) are considered as one of types of study on all-professional and special disciplines and carried out within the school time allowed for their studying. The quantity of academic year projects in a semester has to be no more than one. It is in addition allowed to plan one term paper. Reviewing of an academic year project (work) is carried out in calculation 1 hour on one being trained. Carrying out consultations on course design is made at o'clock provided on this discipline by the curriculum.
The number of the examinations which are taken out for one week of examinations shouldn't exceed two.
Consultations for being trained are provided in volume till 100 o'clock for each academic year depending on specialty and training term on one educational group. Time and form of carrying out consultations (group, individual, written, etc.) are defined by the education organizations.
Elective courses are provided by the working curriculum of educational institution at the rate of no more than 4 hours per week. At the expense of facultative hours it is recommended to provide studying of the following disciplines: "Bases of the labor legislation", "The Kazakhstan right", "Mathematics", "English", "Akmeology", "Study of local lore", etc.
Volumes of obligatory studies on disciplines have to make 70% for vespers and 30% for correspondence forms of education from the corresponding volume of the school hours provided for full-time tuition.
Control. On all disciplines carrying out the intermediate certification which main forms are is provided: examination, offset, examination.
Examinations and offsets are carried out at the expense of time allowed for studying of this discipline; examinations - in the terms which have been taken away on intermediate certification.
Intermediate certification for general education disciplines provides carrying out examinations: on language, on literature, on stories of Kazakhstan, on mathematics and (on physics, in chemistry at the choice of the organization of technical and professional education).
Total certification. For an assessment of level of preparation being trained, on completion of development of an educational program, total certification is carried out.
In the curriculum on specialties possible forms of completion of development of educational training programs are specified: examination of total certification for special disciplines or protection of the degree project (work); protection of the thesis with passing an examination of total certification for one of special disciplines. The guide to degree design is planned at the rate of 16 class periods for one being trained. The interval between total examinations has to be not less than five days. The curriculum provides also an assessment of level of professional readiness and qualification assignment.
The organization of education defines a form of total certification being trained and the volume of school hours on its carrying out.
The school hours being trained in the organizations of education are defined on carrying out total certification no more than 2 weeks.
The assessment of level of readiness and qualification assignment (further-ALPR) on specialties consists of two stages:
1) theoretical testing on special disciplines;
2) performance of practical tasks on skill levels.
The volume of school hours on the organization and carrying out an assessment of level of readiness and assignment of qualification is defined not less than 12 hours on one being trained.
By results of ALPR on the basis of the protocol of the decision of the qualification commission it is appropriated appropriate levels of qualification and the certificate of the established form is issued.
Practical examinations are carried out on production sites, laboratories, workshops or training centers equipped with the necessary equipment on each specialty.
Time allowed for completion of training (degree design and total certification) shouldn't exceed 8 weeks. Duration of predegree (qualification) practice is planned depending on complexity of specialty and the provided skill level of the expert till 6 weeks.